|Posted by Devinder Kumar Dhiman on December 30, 2016 at 10:35 PM||comments (8)|
My article got published in Indian journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 9, Issue 45, December 2016, on 21st December 2016.
Energy Distribution of Radiation Emitted by a Black-body- Independent of Probability
Introduction:Towards the end of the nineteenth century, with the advent of incandescent electric bulbs, a need was felt to investigate the emission of light from electrically heated filament of bulb so as to give the best result with minimum input of electrical energy. This requirement led scientists to experiment with radiation emitted from the black-body as this is identical to radiation emitted by a luminous bulb.
Data was compiled for radiation emitted at various frequencies and temperatures of the black-body. From that data, radiation curves for energy emitted over a wide range of wavelength at different absolute temperatures were drawn and analysis of the data helped German physicist Max Planck, to find a formula for the radiation curves. However, there was no satisfactory explanation for the formula until Max Planck explained it on the basis of his idea of quantization of energy. In his own words, the explanation for this formula was an ‘Act of desperation’ because he had to use probability and quantization of energy for deriving the formula, whereas he was a staunch critic of both. He hoped that someday he will give the explanation without probability and quantization. But as the time passed, the idea of quantization became so useful to physics that it became a branch of science known as Quantum Physics. Since probability was put into use in physics at the same time as quantization, it grew with Quantum Physics and led to many weird results.
In the article, I have shown that there is no need to consider the oscillators and modes of waves of electromagnetic radiations inside the black-body to derive the formula of energy distribution of radiation emitted by the black-body. I have compared the energy released by radiations emitted from the cavity of a black-body with the energy released from an incandescent electric bulb. Electrical energy added to the bulb is then envisaged to transform into energy-sphere that breaks-up into small packets of energy akin to radioactive decay of matter, and generates electromagnetic radiations causing brightness. Derivation of the formula, in this method, does not involve use of probability.
The article has importance in the fact that since 1900, the explanation of the formula based on probability has been prevalent in physics; it is for the first time that an explanation has been given without the use of probability.
To download the article, please go to http://www.indjst.org/index.php/indjst/article/view/72642
|Posted by Devinder Kumar Dhiman on November 17, 2015 at 12:40 AM||comments (0)|
It all started with an idea that velocity of stars can be measured by using Doppler effect on the light coming from the stars. If a train is going away from us, the frequency of sound generated from its whistle is lesser than the frequency of sound generated by a stationary train. This is Doppler effect and when it was applied to light coming stars, it was reasoned that if the frequency of light coming from star is found less than the frequency of light from sun then the star should be going away from us and if it is found more then star should be coming towards earth.
Atn astronomer William Huggins collected data of various stars and he found that frequency of light coming from most of the stars was lesser than the frequency of light of sun, implying they are going away from the earth. He also measured distance of these stars using the brightness of stars. A graph was plotted between distance of stars and their velocity calculated from the red-shift in the frequency of their light. This graph slowed that further a star is, more its red-shift is. Since red-shift was related to velocity of star due to Doppler effect, it was observed that further a star is faster it is going away from Earth. Few years after this, Hubble extended the same principle for galaxies by making measurements for galaxies.
By that time L'emaitre had come up with an idea of 'Primordial atom' using Einstein's General theory of relativity. Combination of Hubble's finding that all galaxies are going away from earth and L'emaitre's idea of 'Primordial atom' led to an idea that there existed a huge 'Primordial atom' in the beginning of Universe, which exploded due to some unknown event and that its parts became stars and galaxies, which are still flying away from the 'Primordial atom'. This explanation was given the name 'Big Bang' by Fred Hoyle.
Thereafter, there have been many arguments against this theory and new findings have refuted those arguments.
First argument was that if Big Bang happened, then there must be its signature radiation still traveling in the universe. This radiation was called Cosmological Microwave Background Radiation, and was found in 1963 by two radio engineers. Then the question of size of ripples and homogeneity in CMBR went against the Big Bang theory. Inflation model was suggested by Alan Guth which solved some problems for Big Bang. Age of the Big Bang has been another cause of concern because Big-bang was calculated to have happened 13.8 billion years ago but super-clusters of galaxies and walls have been observed that could have developed in 80 to 100 billion years only. Overall, Big bang is not yet fully established theory of creation of universe, there are still many loopholes that require to be plugged in.
|Posted by Devinder Kumar Dhiman on October 17, 2015 at 1:10 AM||comments (0)|
'Lines of Space' is available under kindlecountdowndeal from 17th to 21st October at discounted price.
To download the book click on http://amzn.to/15Yg5JY ;
|Posted by Devinder Kumar Dhiman on September 24, 2015 at 9:55 PM||comments (0)|
Question: One car is moving with speed of light and its head light is ON, what should be the speed of light?
Answer:- According to theory of relativity, it doesn't matter whether you are travelling in the car or observing the car from a distance, you will observe the light from the headlights travelling at same speed. Thus, an observer inside the car travelling near the speed of light will observe the head lights functioning normally, and will be able to see everything ahead of the car, whereas the observer standing at a distance will observe the car and light from headlights travelling at same speed, so he/she will observe that car's headlights are useless for the car driver as the light from them is not illuminating anything ahead of the car. This seems strange for a common man, but that is the way the theory of relativity is.
|Posted by Devinder Kumar Dhiman on February 25, 2015 at 1:45 AM||comments (0)|
When we talk about cosmology, we hear that the space is expanding which is causing all stars and galaxies to recede from each other. It is also claimed in Inflation theory that space expanded exponentially in the first fraction of a second after Big Bang. So, all cosmologists agree that space is expanding.
But, what is there inside space that is expanding? Take a simple example, if you have a piece of rubber in your hand, you can stretch it, but if your don't have a rubber in your hands and simply make an action of stretching, how can you say that you have stretched the rubber. Similarly for talking about expansion of space, space has to have something inside it that can expand.
On one hand, it is generally agreed that space expands and on the other, it is believed that there is nothing inside the space that can expand. Then how to explain this paradox.
To get out of this dilemma, fourth dimension of time is added to three dimensions of space, and it is said that space-time fabric is expanding. Space-time fabric also gets curved by gravity. Wherever there is high gravity, space-time fabric is highly curved.
Now, we come back to our simple experiment again. Let the stretched rubber in our hands has a small weight kept on it, it will curve downwards. Higher the mass of the object, sharper the curve will be. This is in accordance with space-time fabric theory, where the curve is increased proportional to the mass of the object lying on space-time fabric.
If there is no rubber in your hands and there is no weight lying on the rubber, can you still say that the rubber is curved? No, you cannot. So, there has to be something physically present that can curve by the weight kept on it. It explains that space-time fabric has to be something physical which can curve around heavy mass.
If space-time fabric is something physical that can curve by the presence of heavy mass, then it is wrong to say that space does not have any medium that can expand.
So. we should follow one rule, either the space is expanding, or nothing exists in space that can expand, not both.
If we agree on expansion of space, then we must also agree that there is something physical in space, that expands.
|Posted by Devinder Kumar Dhiman on February 20, 2015 at 9:30 PM||comments (0)|
Large Hadron Collider (LHC) located at CERN will be functional once again in May this year after upgrading and repairs. Scientists will be trying to find the truth about Dark matter, Dark energy, Higgs particle, Antimatter, Super-symmetry and other secrets of universe by expensive experiments of smashing particles at ever increasing energies, and analyzing their aftereffects, but the question is -Will they succeed in finding these answers?
Unsolved questions about our universe keep increasing as we try to make progress through these experiments. Are we just adding epicycles as Ptolemy had done to justify the now defunct idea of rotation of sun around earth? Something is wrong in our approach to understanding the secrets of universe, what is that?
That is the discarding of the medium of space required for traveling of radiation waves. If we reconsider a medium of space as I have done in my book 'Lines of Space', we can unearth these secrets of universe.
|Posted by Devinder Kumar Dhiman on February 19, 2015 at 9:35 AM||comments (0)|
'God doesn't play dice', is a well known statement by the most celebrated scientist Albert Einstein. He used to say this whenever he had arguments about Quantum Physics. He never supported the use of probability in science. Probability is only a mathematical tool, but it was used by Max Planck to derive a formula for Brilliance of radiation emitted by Black-body. This is the the basic cause of absurdity in Quantum physics and Einstein never accepted this throughout his life.
Over the years, there has been lot of debate on the topic whether he was right or the quantum physics which is most accurate science, is right. I shall not draw you into that debate but simply give you the result of my research.
Einstein was right. That formula can be explained without the use of probability. For that you have to revisit the Black-body radiation curves in the light of 'Lines of Space' concept. This concept is explained in my first book titled 'Lines of Space'. I shall be writing my third book explaining how probability can be removed from quantum physics using the concept of 'Lines of Space'.
|Posted by Devinder Kumar Dhiman on October 1, 2013 at 10:50 AM||comments (0)|
Effect of Dark Energy on Space-Time Concept
Space-time concept of gravity is nearly a hundred year old, and is well established. It has firm proof in measurement of ‘time dilation’ carried out on board the satellites, where the precise atomic clocks record time slower than they would, at Earth. Hence, it seems imprudent to even suggest that there can be any reconsideration of this concept. Nevertheless, with the new notion of dark energy in space, we should re-examine this concept and see if there is any influence on it.
In space-time concept, time is considered flexible whereas space is not, because it is assumed, that there is nothing in the space that can have a variable value. But, with the discovery of dark energy in space, this assumption has to change. Dark energy can have diverse values at different locations in space. When we visualize this dark energy as a medium of space, in the form of lines of force spread in all directions in space, then we can calculate its variation at different locations. The variation pattern of dark energy in space can fulfil the same function, as accomplished by ‘time dilation’, in space-time concept.
‘Time dilation’ in outer space, is calculated as extra time taken by light to travel between two reflecting surfaces of an atomic clock. This slowdown in measurement of time, can also be attributed to different intensity of dark energy in outer space (where atomic clock is present), than at Earth. It implies that, it is the dark energy of space that is causing time dilation, whereas time itself is absolute.
Overall, the effect of dark energy on space-time, is that the space itself is responsible for gravity, and there is no requirement of fourth dimension of time. This makes study of gravity and other assertions of physics straightforward, contrary to complex justifications of observer dependent gravitational and quantum physics.
To learn more about the effect of medium of space (dark energy) on various theories of physics, read the book ‘Lines of Space- source of fundamental forces and constituent of all matter in the Universe’ available at http://amzn.to/15Yg5JY
|Posted by Devinder Kumar Dhiman on August 1, 2013 at 11:05 PM||comments (0)|
After pondering over the reasons for writing a science genre book, I came across the following facts that motivate a writer.
You have an innovative idea, that you believe shall be useful for others, and want to convey to the world. You consider yourself fortunate that you have discovered something that nobody until then have thought of. You want to spread the idea as well as want to protect it from the unscrupulous elements who can project your idea as their own, so you find yourself in a tight spot; neither you can reveal your idea to anyone nor you can keep it a secret. Then you are left with only alternative of writing it all in a book or an article, getting its copyright and publishing it. Now, you have got a proof that the idea is yours and have the satisfaction that it can be circulated to the public as your idea.
If you are a natural teacher and love educating others, then you will be writing books for the fun of it because you feel satisfaction after explaining a certain topic in your own way, by giving your own concocted examples and illustrations. You feel contented when the readers inform you that they find your book useful.
Another reason is that you find a flaw in some scientific theory or disagree with a statement in any science book, and with your research you arrive at correct version, then you wish to disclose to the world your finding. This urge is the most compelling and can overcome any of your disabilities of writing a book; it will certainly make you an author one day.
Making money is a motive common for every genre and this inspiration is generated from the plenty of stories of authors becoming rich after success of their books. Though such stories are more common with fiction books which everyone can easily read and enjoy, but a scientific mind finds it difficult to craft a scenario of fiction, and finds himself at ease when writing about science and thus opts to write the book in the area of his own interest.
A science book may also be written in the hope of becoming famous in your field of study and enhance your value in social circles which can bring added benefits such as promotions and increasing the number of your students or followers. You also get delighted whenever your book is discussed in print or other media.